Randomized Control Trials

Show Take-Pause reduces stress and pain with 3 minutes of use

Volume29, Issue3

March 2022

Pages 270-277


Take-Pause, a VR-based mindfulness intervention, was more effective than passive distraction techniques at reducing short-term anxiety during ED visits for moderately painful conditions in teenagers.


  • At 15 min post-intervention, the VR group had a reduction in mean anxiety score by 10 points and the iPad group by 6 points. (p < 0.001; 95% confidence interval = 0.44 to 7.6).
  • There were no clinically concerning adverse effects, such as headache, general discomfort, dizziness, and vision changes, in either group.


  • 110 patients
  • 55 randomized equally to each group
  • No significant differences in baseline characteristics
  • Patients participated in the Take-Pause VR mindfulness exercise for 3 minutes. 

Volume134, Issue3

March 2024

Pages 1118-1126


The use of VR during HRM catheter insertion increased calmness compared to control. Change of skin conductance was also reduced in the VR group, suggesting decreased physiologic pain. 


  • There was evidence of a significant positive effect of VR on calmness (p = 0.0095) STAI-6 rating, as well as on physiologic measures of pain with significantly decreased GSR rise time (p = 0.0137) and average rate of change of conductance change (p = 0.0035).


  • 40 patients
  • 20 subjects in the intervention arm and 20 in the control arm.
  • Patients with dysphagia were prospectively recruited and randomized to undergo HRM with and without VR distraction.
  • Data collected included the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-6 (STAI-6), the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire, heart rate, and galvanic skin response (GSR) tracings.